Military academy

A military academy or service academy is an educational institution which prepares candidates for service in the officer corps of the army, the navy, marine corps, air force or coast guard. It normally provides education in a military environment, the exact definition depending on the country concerned. Three types of academy exist: pre-school-level institutions awarding academic qualifications, university-level institutions awardingbachelor’s degree level qualification, and those preparing officer cadets for commissioning into the armed services of the state.

The first military academies were established in the 18th century to provide future officers for technically specialized corps, such as engineers and artillery, with scientific training. The Royal Danish Naval Academy was set up in 1701, making it the oldest military academy in existence. The Royal Military Academy, Woolwich was set up in 1720 as the earliest military academy in Britain. Its original purpose was to train cadets entering the Royal Artillery and Royal Engineers. In France, the École Royale du Génie at Mézières was founded in 1748, followed by a non-technical academy in 1751, the École Royale Militaire offering a general military education to the

Mind mapping

A mind map is a diagram used to visually organize information. A mind map is hierarchical and shows relationships among pieces of the whole. It is often created around a single concept, drawn as an image in the center of a blank page, to which associated representations of ideas such as images, words and parts of words are added. Major ideas are connected directly to the central concept, and other ideas branch out from those. Mind maps can be drawn by hand, either as “rough notes” during a lecture, meeting or planning session, for example, or as higher quality pictures when more time is available. Mind maps are considered to be a type ofspider diagram. A similar concept in the 1970s was “idea sun bursting”.

Although the term “mind map” was first popularized by British popular psychology author and television personality Tony Buzan, the use of diagrams that visually “map” information using branching and radial maps traces back centuries. These pictorial methods record knowledge and model systems, and have a long history in learning, brainstorming, memory, visual

Extracurricular

Extracurricular (ECA) are those that fall outside the realm of the normal curriculum of school or university education, performed by students. Extracurricular activities exist for all students. And generally, volunteer activities aren’t always extracurricular activities. Such activities are generally voluntary (as opposed to mandatory), social, philanthropic, and often involve others of the same age. Students and direct these activities underfaculty sponsorship, although student-led initiatives, such as independent newspapers, are very common. A study conducted by surveying school-age students in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health revealed that 70% of adolescents are involved in some form of extracurricular activities. Other studies have shown being involved in extracurricular activities reduces the likelihood of dropping out of school, likelihood of committing a criminal offense, and leads to higher educational retainment and success and achievements in school work, not to mention that the greatest advantage of participating in at least one of these activities is the decrease in anti-social behaviors and students growing up to be more successful in communication and relationships.

Diversity in clubs and extracurricular activities plays an important role in adolescent

Summerhill School

Summerhill School is an independent British boarding school that was founded in 1921 by Alexander Sutherland Neill with the belief that the school should be made to fit the child, rather than the other way around. It is run as a democratic community; the running of the school is conducted in the school meetings, which anyone, staff or pupil, may attend, and at which everyone has an equal vote. These meetings serve as both a legislative and judicial body. Members of the community are free to do as they please, so long as their actions do not cause any harm to others, according to Neill’s principle “Freedom, not Licence.” This extends to the freedom for pupils to choose which lessons, if any, they attend. Many schools opened based on Summerhill, especially in America in the 1960s. A common challenge was to implement Neill’s dictum of “Freedom, not license”: “A free school is not a place where you can run roughshod over other people. It’s a place that minimises the authoritarian elements and maximises the development of community and really caring about the other people. Doing this is a tricky business.” Neill distanced himself from some schools for confusing freedom and

Great Courses

The Great Courses (TGC) is a series of college-level audio and video courses produced and distributed by The Teaching Company(TTC), an American company based in Chantilly, Virginia. The courses are available in audio and video form in various formats and on mobile devices. The courses differ from most online learning platforms in that they are produced for enrichment purposes only and offered without schedules, homework, exams, or certificates. Many of the courses deal with quite narrow topics such as The History of Christianity in the Reformation Era, and Dark Matter and Dark Energy. The company was founded in 1990 by Thomas M. Rollins, former Chief Counsel of the United States Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources. Rollins had been inspired by a 10-hour videotaped lecture series he watched while at Harvard Law School, and began recruiting top professors and experts based almost entirely on customer feedback. On October 2, 2006, the company was acquired by Brentwood Associates, a private equity investment firm.

In 2012, the company produced the first of several cooking courses in partnership with The Culinary Institute of America, and announced an expansion of that partnership in 2013. In 2014, the company announced a partnership with The

Student Centred Learning

Student-centered learning, broadly encompasses methods of teaching that shift the focus of instruction from the teacher to the student. In original usage, student-centered learning aims to develop learner autonomy and independence by putting responsibility for the learning path in the hands of students. Student-centered instruction focuses on skills and practices that enable lifelong learning and independent problem-solving. Student-centered learning theory and practice are based on the constructivist learning theory that emphasizes the learner’s critical role in constructing meaning from new information and prior experience.

Student-centered learning puts students’ interests first, acknowledging student voice as central to the learning experience. In a student-centered learning space, students choose what they will learn, how they will learn, and how they will assess their own learning. This is in contrast to traditional education, also dubbed “teacher-centered learning”, which situates the teacher as the primarily “active” role while students take a more “passive”, receptive role. In a teacher-centered classroom, teachers choose what the students will learn, how the students will learn, and how the students will be assessed on their learning. In contrast, student-centered learning requires students to be active, responsible participants in their own learning and with their own pace of learning.

University

A university is an institution of higher (or tertiary) education and research which awardsacademic degrees in various academic disciplines. Universities typically provide undergraduate education and postgraduate education. The word “university” is derived from the Latin universitas magistrorum et scholarium, which roughly means “community of teachers and scholars.” Universities were created in Italy and evolved from Cathedral schools for the clergy during the High Middle Ages. The original Latin word “universitas” refers in general to “a number of persons associated into one body, a society, company, community, guild, corporation, etc.” At the time of the emergence of urban town life and medieval guilds, specialized “associations of students and teachers with collective legal rights usually guaranteed by charters issued by princes, prelates, or the towns in which they were located” came to be denominated by this general term. Like other guilds, they were self-regulating and determined the qualifications of their members. In modern usage the word has come to mean “An institution of higher education offering tuition in mainly non-vocational subjects and typically having the power to confer degrees,” with the earlier emphasis on its corporate organization considered as applying historically to Medieval universities. The original Latin word referred to

State school

State schools are generally primary or secondary schools mandated for or offered to all children without charge, funded in whole or in part by taxation. These schools are generally inclusive (non-selective) in admitting all students within the geographical area that they serve.

While state schools are to be found in virtually every country, there are significant variations in their structure and educational programs. State education generally encompasses primary and secondary education (kindergarten to twelfth grade, or equivalent), as well as post-secondary educational institutions such as universities, colleges, and technical schools that are funded and overseen by government rather than private entities. The education system, or lack thereof, prior to the establishment of government-funded schools impacts their role in each society. In many instances there was an established educational system which served a significant, albeit often elite, sector of the population; these systems were often funded by religious institutions. The introduction of state schools in some cases was able to build upon this established system, while in others both systems have continued to exist, sometimes in a parallel and complementary relationship and other times less harmoniously.

State education is inclusive, both in its treatment of students and in

Jigsaw Classroom

The jigsaw technique is a method of organizing classroom activity that makes students dependent on each other to succeed. It breaks classes into groups and breaks assignments into pieces that the group assembles to complete the (jigsaw) puzzle. It was designed by social psychologist Elliot Aronson to help weaken racial cliques in forcibly integrated schools.

The technique splits classes into mixed groups to work on small problems that the group collates into a final outcome. For example, an in-class assignment is divided into topics. Students are then split into groups with one member assigned to each topic. Working individually, each student learns about his or her topic and presents it to their group. Next, students gather into groups divided by topic. Each member presents again to the topic group. In same-topic groups, students reconcile points of view and synthesize information. They create a final report. Finally, the original groups reconvene and listen to presentations from each member. The final presentations provide all group members with an understanding of their own material, as well as the findings that have emerged from topic-specific group discussion.

Students in jigsaw classrooms (“jigsaws”) showed a decrease in prejudice and stereotyping, liked in-group

Kindergarten

Kindergarten is a preschool educational approach traditionally based on playing, singing, practical activities such as drawing, and social interaction as part of the transition from home to school. At first such institutions were created in the late 18th century in Bavaria and Strasbourg to serve children whose parents both worked out of the home. The term was coined by the German Friedrich Fröbel, whose approach globally influenced early-years education. Today, the term is used in many countries to describe a variety of educational institutions and learning spaces for children ranging from two to seven years of age, based on a variety of teaching methods.

Korean kindergartens are private schools, and monthly costs vary. Korean parents often send their children to English kindergartens to give them a head start in English. Such specialized kindergartens can be mostly taught in Korean with some English lessons, mostly taught in English with some Korean lessons, or completely taught in English. Almost all middle-class parents send their children to kindergarten. Kindergarten programs in South Korea attempt to incorporate much academic instruction alongside more playful activities. Korean kindergartners learn to read, write (often in English as well as Korean) and do simple arithmetic. Classes

Problem Based Learning

Problem-based learning (PBL) is a student-centered pedagogy in which students learn about a subject through the experience of solving an open-ended problem found in trigger material. The PBL process does not focus on problem solving with a defined solution, but it allows for the development of other desirable skills and attributes. This includes knowledge acquisition, enhanced group collaboration and communication. The PBL process was developed for medical education and has since been broadened in applications for other programs of learning. The process allows for learners to develop skills used for their future practice. It enhances critical appraisal, literature retrieval and encourages ongoing learning in a team environment.

The PBL tutorial process involves working in small groups of learners. Each student takes on a role within the group that may be formal or informal and the role often rotates. It is focused on the student’s reflection and reasoning to construct their own learning. The Maastricht seven-jump process involves clarifying terms, defining problem, brainstorming, structuring and hypothesis, learning objectives, independent study and synthesis. In short, it is identifying what they already know, what they need to know, and how and where to access new information that may lead to

Private School

Private schools, also known as independent schools, non-governmental, or nonstate schools,[1] are not administered by local, state or national governments; thus, they retain the right to select their students and are funded in whole or in part by charging their students tuition, rather than relying on mandatory taxation through public (government) funding; at some private schools students may be able to get a scholarship, lowering this tuition fee, dependent on a student’s talents or abilities (e.g. sport scholarship, art scholarship, academic scholarship), need for financial aid, or tax credit scholarships that might be available.

The secondary level includes schools offering years 7 through 12 (year twelve is known as lower sixth) and year 13 (upper sixth). This category includes university-preparatory schools or “prep schools”, boarding schools and day schools. Tuition at private secondary schools varies from school to school and depends on many factors, including the location of the school, the willingness of parents to pay, peer tuitions and the school’s financial endowment. High tuition, schools claim, is used to pay higher salaries for the best teachers and also used to provide enriched learning environments, including a low student-to-teacher ratio, small class sizes and services,

Vocational Education

Vocational education is education that prepares people to work in a trade, a craft, as a technician, or in professional vocations such as engineering, accountancy, nursing, medicine, architecture, or law. Craft vocations are usually based on manual or practical activities and are traditionally non-academic but related to a specific trade or occupation. Vocational education is sometimes referred to as career education or technical education. Vocational education can take place at the secondary, post-secondary, further education, and higher education level; and can interact with the apprenticeship system. At the post-secondary level, vocational education is often provided by highly specialized trade, Technical schools, community colleges, colleges of further education UK, universities, Institutes of technology / Polytechnic Institutes. Until recently, almost all vocational education took place in the classroom, or on the job site, with students learning trade skills and trade theory from accredited professors or established professionals. However, online vocational education has grown in popularity, and made it easier than ever for students to learn various trade skills and soft skills from established professionals in the industry.

A vocational school, sometimes called a trade school or vocational college, is a type of educational institution, which, depending on country, may

Outdoor Education

Outdoor education can be simply defined as experiential learning in, for, or about the outdoors. The term ‘outdoor education’, however, is used broadly to refer to a range of organized activities that take place in a variety of ways in predominantly outdoor environments. Common definitions of outdoor education are difficult to achieve because interpretations vary according to culture, philosophy, and local conditions. Outdoor education usually refers to organized learning that takes place in the outdoors. Outdoor education programs sometimes involve residential or journey wilderness-based experiences in which students participate in a variety of adventurous challenges and outdoor activities such as hiking, climbing, canoeing, ropes courses and group games. John Muir Award is one organization which encourage and provide opportunities for outdoor learning. Outdoor education draws upon the philosophy, theory, and practices ofexperiential education and environmental education. Forest School is an approach to outdoor learning which supports the development of self-esteem and confidence using a natural environment.

Outdoor education spans the three domains of self, others, and the natural world. The relative emphasis of these three domains varies from one program to another. An outdoor education program can, for example, emphasize one (or more) of these aims to:

Critical Thinking

Critical thinking is the objective analysis of facts to form a judgment. The subject is complex, and there are several different definitions which generally include the rational,skeptical, unbiased analysis or evaluation of factual evidence. Critical thinking was described by Richard Paul as a movement in two waves (1994). The “first wave” of critical thinking is often referred to as a ‘critical analysis’ that is clear,rational thinking involving critique. Its details vary amongst those who define it. According to Barry K. Beyer (1995), critical thinking means making clear, reasoned judgments. During the process of critical thinking, ideas should be reasoned, well thought out, and judged. The U.S. National Council for Excellence in Critical Thinking[4] defines critical thinking as the “intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, or evaluating information gathered from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action.”

Traditionally, critical thinking has been variously defined as:

  • the skill and propensity to engage in an activity with reflective scepticism
  • disciplined, self-directed thinking which exemplifies the perfection of thinking appropriate to a particular mode or domain of thinking
  • thinking about one’s thinking in a manner designed to organize and clarify,

Unschooling

Unschooling is an educational method and philosophy that advocates learner-chosen activities as a primary means for learning. Unschooling students learn through their natural life experiences including play, household responsibilities, personal interests and curiosity, internships and work experience, travel, books, elective classes, family, mentors, and social interaction. Unschooling encourages exploration of activities initiated by the children themselves, believing that the more personal learning is, the more meaningful, well-understood and therefore useful it is to the child. While courses may occasionally be taken, unschooling questions the usefulness of standard curricula, conventional grading methods, and other features of traditional schooling in the education of each unique child.

The term “unschooling” was coined in the 1970s and used by educator John Holt, widely regarded as the father of unschooling. While often considered a subset of homeschooling, unschoolers may be as philosophically separate from other homeschoolers as they are from advocates of conventional schooling. While homeschooling has been subject to widespread public debate, little media attention has been given to unschooling in particular. Critics of unschooling see it as an extreme educational philosophy, with concerns that unschooled children will lack the social skills, structure, and motivation of their schooled peers, while proponents

Alternative education

Alternative education encompasses many pedagogical approaches differing from mainstream pedagogy. Such alternative learning environments may be found within state,charter, and independent schools as well as home-based learning environments. Many educational alternatives emphasize small class sizes, close relationships between students and teachers and a sense of community. The legal framework for such education varies by locality, and determines any obligation to conform with mainstream standard tests and grades. Alternative pedagogical approaches may include different structures, as in the open classroom, different teacher-student relationships, as in the Quaker and free schools, and/or differing curricula and teaching methods, as in the Waldorf and Montessori schools. Synonyms for “alternative” in this context include “non-traditional,” “non-conventional” and “non-standardized”. Alternative educators use terms such as “authentic”, “holistic” and “progressive”.

  • Independent schools

Independent, or private, schools have flexibility in staff selection and educational approach. Many are Montessori and Waldorf schools (the latter also known as Steiner schools, after their founder Rudolf Steiner). Other independent schools include democratic or free schools, such as Clonlara School, which is the oldest, continually operating K-12 alternative school in the country, the Sudbury schools, open classroom schools, those based on experiential

Educational theory

  • Educational psychology

Educational psychology is the study of how humans learn in educational settings, the effectiveness of educational interventions, the psychology of teaching, and the social psychology of schools as organizations. Although the terms “educational psychology” and “school psychology” are often used interchangeably, researchers and theorists are likely to be identified as educational psychologists, whereas practitioners in schools or school-related settings are identified as school psychologists. Educational psychology is concerned with the processes of educational attainment in the general population and in sub-populations such as gifted children and those with specificdisabilities.

  • The intelligence–education relationship

Intelligence is an important factor in how the individual responds to education. Those who have higher intelligence tend to perform better at school and go on to higher levels of education. This effect is also observable in the opposite direction, in that education increases measurable intelligence. Studies have shown that while educational attainment is important in predicting intelligence in later life, intelligence at 53 is more closely correlated to intelligence at 8 years old than to educational attainment.

  • Learning modalities

There has been much interest in learning modalities and styles over the last

Kind Of Education

  • Formal education

Formal education occurs in a structured environment whose explicit purpose is teaching students. Usually, formal education takes place in a school environment with classrooms of multiple students learning together with a trained, certified teacher of the subject. Most school systems are designed around a set of values or ideals that govern all educational choices in that system. Such choices include curriculum, organizational models, design of the physical learning spaces (e.g. classrooms), student-teacher interactions, methods of assessment, class size, educational activities, and more.

  • Preschool

Preschools provide education from ages approximately three to seven, depending on the country when children enter primary education. These are also known as nursery schools and as kindergarten, except in the US, where kindergarten is a term used for primary education. Kindergarten “provide a child-centred, preschool curriculum for three- to seven-year-old children that aim at unfolding the child’s physical, intellectual, and moral nature with balanced emphasis on each of them.”

  • Primary

Primary (or elementary) education consists of the first five to seven years of formal, structured education. In general, primary education consists of six to eight years of schooling starting at the

Education?

Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits. Educational methods include storytelling, discussion, teaching, training, and directed research. Education frequently takes place under the guidance of educators, but learners may also educate themselves. Education can take place in formal or informal settings and any experience that has a formative effect on the way one thinks, feels, or acts may be considered educational. The methodology of teaching is calledpedagogy. Education is commonly divided formally into such stages as preschool or kindergarten, primary school, secondary school and then college,university, or apprenticeship. A right to education has been recognized by some governments and the United Nations. In most regions, education is compulsory up to a certain age.

History

Education began in prehistory, as adults trained the young in the knowledge and skills deemed necessary in their society. In pre-literate societies, this was achieved orally and through imitation. Story-telling passed knowledge, values, and skills from one generation to the next. As cultures began to extend their knowledge beyond skills that could be readily learned through imitation, formal education developed. Schools existed in Egypt at the time of the Middle Kingdom. After